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Dopamine is a chemical messenger that supports many important brain functions. These include functions that deal with reward, emotions, pleasure, and movement control. In Parkinson's disease, the midbrain neurons, or brain cells, that make dopamine die off. But it is not clear what causes their death.
As more and more dopamine cells die, levels of the chemical messenger drop, giving rise to symptoms such as tremor, slowness, rigidity, and problems with balance. Problems with speech and swallowing also develop, as do several nonmovement symptoms. Estimates suggest that around half a million people in the United States have Parkinson's disease. Autoimmune diseases arise because the immune system attacks healthy organs, tissues, and cells instead of protecting them. There are at least 80 different known types of autoimmune disease, including rheumatoid arthritis , multiple sclerosis , lupus , and type 1 diabetes.
Although the idea that Parkinson's could be an autoimmune disease is not new, the biological evidence to back it up is only just emerging. In , for instance, a study from the U. More recently, scientists have linked the use of drugs that subdue the immune system to a lower risk of developing Parkinson's disease.
Together with a team from the movement disorders clinic at University Hospital Erlangen, the FAU researchers had earlier discovered that the brains of those with Parkinson's had higher levels of Th17 cells. Th17 cells are also found in higher amounts in people with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. The discovery spurred the team to investigate further using a stem cell model of Parkinson's disease. To develop the model, they took skin cells from people with and without Parkinson's and induced them to become "pluripotent stem cells.
They coaxed the stem cells to mature into midbrain neurons that make dopamine. This meant that they had batches of newly created dopamine cells that were specific to each of the patients.
The team then exposed each batch of dopamine cells to fresh Th17 cells taken from the patients. In this way, each batch of patient-specific dopamine cells was exposed only to Th17 cells that came from that same patient. The results showed that while the Th17 cells killed many of the dopamine cells from patients with Parkinson's, this did not happen with the cells that came from patients without the disease. In further experiments, the scientists also discovered that an antibody that was already in use in the hospital for the treatment of psoriasis was "able to largely prevent the death" of the brain cells.
MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional. Privacy Terms Ad policy Careers. Visit www. All rights reserved. Moreover, there is evidence of increased levels of a range of autoantibodies in women with endometriosis, spurring enthusiasm among researchers to investigate their potential role as biomarkers for endometriosis.
A recent series of Cochrane reviews on blood biomarkers and urinary biomarkers for endometriosis found that although several antibodies have been indicated to be increased in women with endometriosis, only anti-endometrial antibodies and interleukin-6 were found to be useful for detecting endometriosis but their accuracy still cannot replace the standard surgical diagnosis Liu et al. As endometriosis is a highly heritable disease, a number of candidate gene studies of endometriosis have been conducted to investigate the association between autoimmune-related genes and endometriosis Bianco et al.
Among these studies, genes such as PTPN22 that have been well established to be associated with RA have also been reported to be associated with endometriosis in comparison to endometriosis-free controls. Also, HLA alleles that are most commonly associated with autoimmune diseases have also been reported to be associated with endometriosis. However, these studies have generally included small sample sizes, poorly defined ethnicity and limited genotyping of loci. Importantly, these autoimmune-related genes were not reported in robust, large-scale genome-wide association studies of endometriosis Sapkota et al.
Finally, while endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent disorder, hormonal factors have also been found to play an important role to increase the activity or severity of autoimmune diseases. For example, a study of 16 patients with relapsing—remitting MS found that assisted reproduction technology for infertility treatment using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and recombinant FSH was associated with a 7-fold increase in risk of MS exacerbation Correale et al. However, although there were a few high-quality, well-designed studies with large sample size, many of the included studies in this review were of low quality and had limitations.
It is important to note that the evidence did not allow for accurate estimation of increased risk and have no clinical diagnostic utility. As most studies of endometriosis include women of reproductive age, longer follow-up studies are needed to ascertain the true risk of autoimmune diseases that may occur after menopause. Larger follow-up studies would also help understand whether endometriosis is a risk factor or a consequence of autoimmune diseases or if these two types of disorders share pathological mechanism and pathways resulting in their co-occurrence.
The observational evidence also does not exclude the possibility that selection and diagnostic biases in the studies underlie some of the associations observe, nor was there any evidence that the observed associations are biologically underpinned. Further studies are needed to explore the latter.
Genetic and biological and studies of immunological dysfunctions in the context of endometriosis may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of both conditions, and if shared pathogenic origins are observed, contribute to the identification of novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets. The authors are thankful to Prof. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account.
Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Conflict of interest. The association between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis Nina Shigesi. Correspondence address. E-mail: krina. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar.
Marina Kvaskoff. Shona Kirtley. Qian Feng. Hai Fang. Julian C Knight. Stacey A Missmer.
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. Nilufer Rahmioglu. Krina T Zondervan. Christian M Becker. Jointly directed the work. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Figure 1. Open in new tab Download slide. Flow chart for study inclusion and exclusion process. Table I.
Open in new tab. Table II. Table III. Table IV. For RA plus parity, duration of breast feeding. Table V. Quality assessment for each study outcome under review part 1. Table VI. Quality assessment for each study outcome under review part 2.
In or thereabouts I became impressed with how immunity could be looked Auto-Immunity and Auto-Immune Disease. A survey for physician or biologist. A survey for physician or biologist Burnet MacFarlane. AUTO – IMMUNITY AND AUTO – IMMUNE DISEASE A survey for physician or biologist SIR.
Figure 2. Serological testing for celiac disease in women with endometriosis. A pilot study. Revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification of endometriosis: Search ADS.
Can symptomatology help in the diagnosis of endometriosis? Findings from a national case—control study—part 1. The possible role of genetic variants in autoimmune-related genes in the development of endometriosis. Subfertility in women with rheumatoid arthritis and the outcome of fertility assessments.
Endometriosis allergic or autoimmune disease: pathogenetic aspects--a case control study. Increase in multiple sclerosis activity after assisted reproduction technology. Genome-wide association analysis identifies 27 novel loci associated with uterine leiomyomata revealing common genetic origins with endometriosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus and reproductive function: a case—control study. Retrograde menstruation in healthy women and in patients with endometriosis.
Endometriosis and the risks of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in the Nurses Health Study II. Endometriosis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a population-based case—control study. Updated assessment of the prevalence, spectrum and case definition of autoimmune disease. Endometriosis might be inversely associated with developing chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan. What do we know about regulatory T cells and endometriosis? A systematic review. Increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease in women with endometriosis: a nationwide Danish cohort study.
Impact of concomitant endometriosis on phenotype and natural history of inflammatory bowel disease. Endometrial alterations in endometriosis: a systematic review of putative biomarkers. Estrogen and other female reproductive risk factors are not strongly associated with the development of rheumatoid arthritis in elderly women. Impact of endometriosis on quality of life and work productivity: a multicenter study across ten countries.
Risk of ectopic pregnancy in women with inflammatory bowel disease: a year nationwide cohort study. Endometriosis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparative evaluation of clinical manifestations and serological autoimmune phenomena. A prospective cohort study of endometriosis and subsequent risk of infertility. Peritoneal endometriosis due to the menstrual dissemination of endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity. Looking for celiac disease in Italian women with endometriosis: a case control study.
Meta-analysis identifies five novel loci associated with endometriosis highlighting key genes involved in hormone metabolism. Google Preview. Extracellular matrix-dependent regulation of Fas ligand expression in human endometrial stromal cells. A systematic review of the association between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases. High rates of autoimmune and endocrine disorders, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and atopic diseases among women with endometriosis: a survey analysis.
Graves disease is associated with endometriosis: a 3-year population-based cross-sectional study. For commercial re-use, please contact journals. Issue Section:. Download all figures. Supplementary data. View Metrics. Email alerts New issue alert. Advance article alerts. Article activity alert. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. More on this topic Mechanisms of autoimmune disease in the testis and ovary. Treatment of thyroid disorders before conception and in early pregnancy: a systematic review. Significance of sub clinical thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity before conception and in early pregnancy: a systematic review.
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Nielsen et al. Jess et al. Santoro et al. Caserta et al. Harris et al. Yuk et al. Brouwer et al. Wu et al. SLE prevalence: 9. Age, smoking status, age at last pregnancy, drug to stop lactation, age at menopause, polycystic ovary syndrome, HRT. Age at menarche, parity, menstrual cycle length, BMI, physical activity, smoking, OCP, ethnicity, infertility and analgesic use.
Four studies with high risk of bias self-reported outcomes, small sample size, unrepresentativeness of the control group or whole study population.