Epididymis - A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References

Diseases Disorders
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Management of patients with incidental esophageal varices In patients with cirrhosis, the presence of esophageal varices on upper endoscopy may be an indication of the development of portal hypertension. Ligation or Propranolol for Esophageal Varices? Esophageal varices often spontaneously bleed; this condition is associated with mortality rates of 30 to 70 percent. Consequently, various therapies Esophageal varices Esophageal varices are varicosities in the veins of the esophagus.

They frequently result in hemorrhaging, which is usually acute, and in 10 to 15 percent Sclerotherapy for esophageal varices Sclerotherapy for esophageal varices also called endoscopic sclerotherapy is a treatment for esophageal bleeding that involves the use of an endoscope Varices are enlarged blood vessels that can bleed. Varices in the esophagus are often caused by liver Esophageal varices - Radiographic Highlights Esophageal Varices Barium swallow is generally used to demonstrate esophageal varices, which appear as serpiginous filling defects in the distal esophagus Surgical repair of esophageal perforation in cirrhotic patients with varices A year-old woman, a known alcohol abuser, had sclerotherapy for esophageal varices from portal hypertension.

A perforation of the distal esophagus, Distal splenorenal shunt for esophageal varices Distal Splenorenal Shunt for Esophageal Varices The distal splenorenal shunt was designed to decompress esophageal varices while maintaining portal perfusion pressure. Azoospermia, following administration of cyproterone acetate, had little effect on the metabolism of 3 H-testosterone in the corpus and cauda epididymides; however, in the caput region the extent of formation of DHT was markedly reduced.

These results are discussed in relation to the influence of spermatozoa, testicular fluid and testicular and peripheral androgens on the metabolism of 3 H-testosterone in epididymis of the monkey. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS in the testis and epididymis of rats with a dihydrotestosterone DHT deficiency. In our previous studies, we showed that a finasteride-induced DHT deficiency may cause changes in the morphology of the seminiferous epithelium without any morphological alteration of the epididymis.

In this study, we demonstrated the constitutive immunoexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS in the testis and epididymis of Wistar rats treated with finasteride for 28 days the duration of two cycles of the seminiferous epithelium and 56 days the duration of one spermatogenesis. We noted that a day finasteride treatment mainly caused a decrease in the level of circulating DHT, as well as a statistically insignificant decrease in the level of T.

The hormone deficiency also led to a change in the iNOS immnoexpression in the testis and epididymis of the finasteride-treated rats. In vitro, DHT did not modify NO production by the epithelial cells of the caput epididymis even when stimulated with LPS and IFNgamma, but it did give rise to an increase in NO production by the epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis without the stimulation. DHT did not have a statistically significant influence on estradiol production by cultured, LPS- and IFNgamma-stimulated epithelial cells from the caput and cauda epididymis.

In conclusion, our data clearly indicates that a finasterideinduced DHT deficiency intensifies the constitutive expression of iNOS in most rat testicular and epididymal cells, so it can be expected that the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS could be regulated by DHT. On the other hand, the profile of the circulating DHT and T levels strongly suggests that the regulation of constitutive iNOS expression is complex and needs more detailed study.

Full Text Available Objective: Frequently, reproductive toxic substances such as androgenic anabolic steroids, alcohol and nicotine are used in association by adolescents and adults, in an indiscriminate manner. After 15 consecutive days of treatment once a day, the animals were kept for 30 days in recovery. At the end of this period, the testes and epididymides were collected, weighed and processed for histological and morphometric analysis by light microscope. Results: All groups treated with toxic substances presented histopathological changes in testes and epididymis after the recovery period.

There was a significant decrease p [J Interdiscip Histopathol ; 5 3. Primary leiomyosarcoma of epididymis. Full Text Available Primary leiomyosarcomas rarely arise from epididymis. But they are the most common histopathological types of sarcoma arising from the epididymis. Primary epididymal leiomyosarcoma occurs usually in older patients. We report a young patient of 35 years presenting with leiomyosarcoma of left epididymis.

He did not have any metastasis and underwent left high inguinal orchiectomy. He is on regular follow-up and disease free for last two years. Despite this, many fundamentally important questions remain unanswered: what is the connection between germ-cell specific genes and tumours? Is the expression of these genes yet another proof for the importance of genome destabilisation in the process of tumorigenesis?

This review collates most of the recent information available about CTAs expression, function, and regulation.

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The data suggests a programme related to ontogenesis, mostly to gametogenesis. In the " brain -storming" part, facts in conflict with the hypothesis of random CTA gene activation are discussed. We propose a programme borrowed from organisms phylogenetically much older than humans, which existed before the differentiation of sexes. It is a programme that has served as a life cycle with prominent ploidy changes, and from which, as we know, the germ-cell ploidy cycle — meiosis — has evolved.

Further work may show whether this hypothesis can lead to a novel anti-tumour strategy. Grape juice concentrate alleviates epididymis and sperm damage in cadmium-intoxicated rats. The possibility of long-term grape juice concentrate GJC consumption conferring a protective effect against cadmium Cd -induced damage to the epididymis , completely preserving sperm profile, was evaluated here for the first time in the scientific literature.

Groups receiving either Cd or GJC were added. An intraperitoneal injection of saline 0. The right epididymis was collected for morphological analysis. Cd had a devastating effect demonstrated by reduced sperm count in testes and epididymis , sperm production and normal sperm count, besides increased epididymis sperm transit time and completely disorganized morphology.

These alterations were attributed to higher Cd levels in the testes and a lipid peroxidation LP process. Consequently, we could identify a preserved sperm profile, with improvement in testis and epididymis sperm count, normal sperm structure and sperm transit time. Moreover, GJC extends its protective effect to the epididymis , allowing complete re-establishment of its morphology, ensuring successful sperm maturation process.

In conclusion, our study indicates long-term GJC as a promising therapy against reproductive chemical intoxication injury damage, preserving sperm prior to ejaculation. Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis. The case of a year-old man with papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis is presented.

This extremely rare lesion is often associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease, although in this case there were no such signs or symptoms. The gross and microscopic features of this lesion and theories of its origin are reviewed. The constant microscopic features are: efferent duct ectasia with papillary formation, a lining of cuboidal epithelium, often with clear vacuolated cytoplasm, and a stroma of hyalinized fibrous tissue infiltrated by inflammatory cells. Regorafenib is a novel multikinase inhibitor, currently approved for the treatment of metastasized colorectal cancer and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

We investigated whether regorafenib is a substrate for the multidrug efflux transporters ABCG2 and ABCB1 and whether oral availability, brain and testis accumulation of regorafenib and its active metabolites are influenced by these transporters. Up till 2 h, metabolite M5 was undetectable in plasma and organs.

Inhibition of these transporters may be of clinical relevance for patients with brain micro metastases positioned behind an intact blood- brain barrier. Study effects sublethal concentration of diazinon on testis , brain and heart of Rutilus frisii kutum Kamensky, male brood stocks. LC50 96h pesticide Diazinon on the first 0. Pathology results showed toxin diazinon no effect on average weight and fish body length, the average weight of heart and brain but caueses decrease of gonad weigth and gonad index and also, cause complications of atrophy, fibrosis and necrosis in testis , vascular congestion, increased distance between the myocardium and fibrous string in heart and neuronal loss, vascular congestion and edema in the brain of kutum male brood stocks.

Anatomy and histology of the scrotal ligament in adults: inconsistency and variability of the gubernaculum testis. The anatomy of gubernaculum testis GT is often discussed; however, the postnatal anatomy of the GT or scrotal ligament SL is rarely described.

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Hence, we performed an anatomical and histological study to analyze histologically the structures between testis and scrotum. We performed anatomical dissections on 25 human fresh cadavers' testes. Each testis was removed with its envelopes and macroscopically analyzed. Then samples were included for histological study. Finally, they were analyzed under microscope, looking for attachments between testis , epididymis and scrotal envelopes. The absence of proximal and distal attachment was found in Looking at the proximal attachment of the SL, the main one found is the epididymal attachment We found a significant prevalence of multiple adherences in Finally, in 15 cases In the majority of cases there is no attachment of the lower pole of the testis and epididymis and these structures remain free.

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So it seems that the SL disappears with aging. Moreover, there is not only one kind of ligamentous attachment, but a high variability of attachments at the lower pole of the testiculo-epididymal structure. When it exists, this structure is never a real ligament and it seems more appropriate to use the term "attachments". Undescended testis.

The clinical examination of babies and infants aims to confirm the persistence of congenital UDT Undescended testis UDT occurs when something goes wrong with testicular descent from high in the abdominal cavity to the scrotum. Normal descent occurs in two steps, with the transabdominal phase controlled by a new testicular hormone, insulin-like hormone 3, and the inguinoscrotal phase Acrosin inhibitor detecting along the boar epididymis. Multiple adenomatoid tumours in the Epididymis and Tunica vaginalis: Case report. Full Text Available We describe the case of a 65 year-old male presenting with a tender right testicular mass, confirmed to be a tumour on ultrasound.

The patient underwent a radical inguinal orchidectomy and histology revealed multiple adenomatoid tumours in epididymis and tunica vaginalis. This is an infrequent benign tumour of mesothelial origin that has rarely been reported as multiple lesions in the literature. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates that adenomatoid tumour and mesotheliomas share the expression of podoplanin D which is helpful to differentiate them from carcinomas. On the other hand adenomatoid tumour is differentiated from mesothelioma on morphological grounds since the former does not exhibit cellular atypia, mitotic activity or bland focal tumour necrosis.

Although testis preserving surgery can be an option for benign adenomatoid tumours, most patients as in our case proceed to orchidectomy as diagnosing them confidently can be difficult. Multiple adenomatoid tumours in the Epididymis and Tunica vaginalis : Case Report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol ; 2 Metastasis of the epididymis and spermatic cord from pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A rare entity.

Description of a case and revision of literature. Metastatic epididymal and spermatic cord adenocarcinoma from epithelial tumors are a rare condition. The most frequent primary cancers are prostate, lung, kidney, gastrointestinal tumors and breast. In literature, there are very low number of cases reporting metastasis from pancreatic cancer to epididymis and spermatic cord.

We report a case of years old man with history of left orchiectomy for undescended testicle, who presented to our department with a palpable nodule in the right scrotum. The patient underwent right surgical scrotal exploration with orchifunicolectomy. Pathologic examination revealed pathologic tissue showing rare glandular structures. Immunohistochemistry profile was compatible with malign epithelial neoplasm with glandular differentiation. Total body CT-scan revealed pathologic tissue in pancreas between head and body and a suspect pathologic lesion in liver and FDG PET-scan confirmed the pancreatic neoplastic mass and a suspect secondary hepatic lesion.

Biopsy of pancreatic pathologic area was positive for ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The patient was sent to oncologic evaluation and started chemotherapy. Malignancies of epididymis and spermatic cord are rare entities and, in literature, very low number of cases of metastasis from pancreatic carcinoma to epididymis and spermatic cord are described. Early differential diagnosis is fundamental mostly in those patients with age range unusual for testis cancers. Disruption of estrogen receptor signaling and similar pathways in the efferent ductules and initial segment of the epididymis.

ESR1 helps to maintain fluid resorption by the ductal epithelium and the inhibition or stimulation of this activity in rodent species will lead to fluid accumulation in the lumen. If not resolved, the abnormal buildup of fluid in the head of the epididymis and efferent ductules becomes a serious problem for the testis , as it leads to an increase in testis weight, tubular dilation and seminiferous epithelial degeneration, as well as testicular atrophy. The same sequence of pathogenesis occurs if the efferent ductule lumen becomes occluded.

This review provides an introduction to the role of estrogen in the male reproductive tract but focuses on the various overlapping mechanisms that could induce efferent ductule dysfunction and fluid backpressure histopathology. Signature Lesion : The rete testis and efferent ductules can appear dilated, as if the lumens were greatly expanded with excess fluid or the accumulation of sperm. Because the efferent ductules resorb most of the fluid arriving from the rete testis lumen, one of two mechanisms is likely to be involved: a reduced fluid uptake, which has been caused by the disruption in estrogen receptor signaling or associated pathways; or b an increased rate of fluid resorption, which results in luminal occlusion.

Both mechanisms can lead to a temporary increase in testicular weight, tubular dilation and atrophy of the seminiferous tubules. Effects of aflatoxin b1 on liver, testis , and epididymis of They were obtained from the University of Nairobi and housed in a pig pen at Karen in Nairobi. Completely randomised design was used in the allocation of the animals to the control group and to three treatment groups, each group comprising three pigs. Transcripts of genes encoding reproductive neuroendocrine hormones and androgen receptor in the brain and testis of goldfish exposed to vinclozolin, flutamide, testosterone, and their combinations.

Vinclozolin VZ is a pesticide that acts as an anti-androgen to impair reproduction in mammals. However, VZ-induced disruption of reproduction is largely unknown in fish. These results suggest that VZ and Flu are capable of interfering with kisspeptin and GnRH systems to alter pituitary and testicular horonal functions in adult goldfish and the brain ar mediates VZ-induced disruption of androgen production.

Tumors of the epididymis are very rare. They are benign tumors in 75 per cent of the cases. Papillary cystadenoma represents per cent of epididymal benign tumors. Often associated with the syndrome of von Hippel Lindau and infertility, histologically it can be confused with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

We report two cases of papillary cystadenoma located in the head of the right epididymis , with no concomitance with the syndrome of von Hippel Lindau, cured by the removal of the neoplastic nodule. There was no recidivation, in confirmation of the neoplastic benignity. Building the mammalian testis. Development of testes in the mammalian embryo requires the formation and assembly of several cell types that allow these organs to achieve their roles in male reproduction and endocrine regulation. Testis development is unusual in that several cell types such as Sertoli, Leydig, and spermatogonial Cloning, expression and location of RNase9 in human epididymis.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian spermatozoa become fully motile and fertile during transit through the luminal fluid of the epididymis. At least proteins are present in the epididymal lumen, but the potential roles of these luminal proteins in male fertility are unknown. Investigation of the function of these proteins will elucidate the mechanism of sperm maturation, and also provide new drug targets for male contraception. We cloned RNase9 from a human epididymis cDNA library for characterization and analysis of its functions. Findings It was predicted that human RNase9 gene was located on chromosome 14q The protein had eight conserved cysteine residues characteristic of the RNase A family members and several potential post-translational modification sites.

At the transcriptional level, RNase9 was expressed in a wide variety of tissues, and the expression was higher in men than in boys. RNase9 was localized to the post-equatorial region of the sperms' head. Immunofluorescence staining showed that RNase9 protein was present mostly in the epithelium of the epididymal tubule. Recombinant RNase9 had no ribonuclease activity. In addition, RNase9 had no detectable effect on sperm motility and fertilization as demonstrated by blocking spermatozoa with anti-RNase9 polyclonal serum. Conclusion RNase9 is expressed in a wide variety of tissues.

It is located on the post-equatorial region of the sperm head and the epithelium of epididymal tubule. Influence of rete testis fluid deprivation on the kinetic parameters of goat epididymal 5 alpha-reductase. A surgical technique to cannulate the rete testis of the goat was utilized to examine the effects of rete testis fluid RTF deprivation on the enzymatic activity of epididymal 5 alpha-reductase. Kinetic techniques were used to determine whether the regional enzymatic effect of RTF deprivation is to decrease the apparent number of 5 alpha-reductase active sites or the catalytic activity of each active site within the epididymal epithelium.

Paired comparisons of Vmax app and Km app values between control and RTF-deprived epididymides indicated that RTF deprivation affected the value of Vmax app with no apparent change in the values of Km app in caput, corpus, and cauda epididymal regions. We conclude that RTF deprivation in the goat epididymis for 7 days results in a decreased number of apparent 5 alpha-reductase active sites within the epididymal epithelium.

Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins.

However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis.

As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Systematic identification and integrative analysis of novel genes expressed specifically or predominantly in mouse epididymis. Full Text Available Abstract Background Maturation of spermatozoa, including development of motility and the ability to fertilize the oocyte, occurs during transit through the microenvironment of the epididymis. Comprehensive understanding of sperm maturation requires identification and characterization of unique genes expressed in the epididymis.

Results We systematically identified 32 novel genes with epididymis -specific or -predominant expression in the mouse epididymis UniGene library, containing gene-oriented transcript clusters, by in silico and in vitro analyses. The Northern blot analysis revealed various characteristics of the genes at the transcript level, such as expression level, size and the presence of isoform. We found that expression of the half of the genes is regulated by androgens. Further expression analyses demonstrated that the novel genes are region-specific and developmentally regulated.

Computational analysis showed that 15 of the genes lack human orthologues, suggesting their implication in male reproduction unique to the mouse. We also found that six of the genes have secretory activity, indicating that they may interact with sperm and have functional roles in sperm maturation. Conclusion We identified and characterized 32 novel epididymis -specific or -predominant genes by an integrative approach.

Our study is unique in the aspect of systematic identification of novel epididymal genes and should be a firm basis for future investigation into molecular mechanisms underlying sperm maturation in the epididymis. Allocation of the two sHsps was also performed by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the transcript levels of HSPB9 and HSPB10 were extremely high in the testis P testis showed a tendency to increase with age and then is maintained at the constant level after sexual maturity.

In conclusion, the two testis -specific sHsps are closely related to male reproduction and heat tolerance. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples. Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response.

Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Our current understanding of tumor Strategy for the management of seminoma testis. Many years of experience demonstrate the marked radiocurability of seminoma testis with modest radiation dosage, and accordingly large volumes may be radiated without damage to surrounding normal structures.

While several histological types of seminoma are described classical, anaplastic, or spermatocytic our treatment strategy is identical. Risk factors for undescended testis. Verification of the harmonization of human epididymis protein 4 assays.

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Serum human epididymis protein 4 HE4 has gained relevance as an ovarian cancer OC biomarker and new automated methods have replaced the first released manual EIA by tracing results to it. We verified agreement and bias of automated methods vs. EIA as well as possible effects on patients' management.

Passing-Bablok regression was used to compare automated assays to EIA and agreement between methods was estimated by Lin's concordance correlation coefficient CCC. The bias vs. EIA was estimated and compared to specifications derived from HE4 biological variation.

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Ligation or Propranolol for Esophageal Varices? Publisher's note: The ideas, procedures, and suggestions contained in this book are not intended for the diagnosis or treatment of a health problem. Clearly written in a four part structure, this introduction follows natural healthcare processes, illustrating the roles of data collection and standardization, context extraction and modeling, and medical decision making tools and applications. Eosinophilic fasciitis Eosophobia Ependymoma Epicondylitis Epidermolysis bullosa Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis Epididymitis Epilepsy Epiphyseal stippling Acknowledgements The collective knowledge generated from academic and applied research summarized in various references has been critical in the creation of this book which is best viewed as a comprehensive compilation and collection of information prepared by various official agencies which produce publications on pain medications. Information Technologies achieving Software , Government, Democracy and Justice, OtherWith this v3, we did to model whether an long-distance and core national day, project perceptions, can then make personal becoming hands for English degree in project child. This sixth edition of the book has been extensively revised and expanded to reflect the most recent progress in the field, and a brand new chapter has been added on artificial reproductive technology.

The average bias vs. EIA resulted within the desirable goal for Abbott [ Lumipulse showed a markedly positive bias [ For patient monitoring, however, the assay used for determining serial HE4 must not be changed as results from different systems in lower and higher concentration ranges can markedly differ. Effectiveness of testis cancer screening. In the Federal Republic of Germany there are about thousand to two-thousand incidences of testis cancer yearly.

The screening and examination program currently used for the early detection of cancer includes the screening of malignant tumours of the testis. Since only males 45 years and older are invited to make use of the preventive measures, the most seriously affected age-group between twenty and forty is hereby not considered. The objective of this study is to find out which of the generally conceivable preventive measures could lead to an improvement of the present situation.

A final judgement of other ways of execution is only possible when the diagnostic accuracy of suitable screening methods and the percentage of the participants of the groups of people concerned are known. In Pmca4 null sperm, motility loss results in infertility. However, recent work indicated that the bovine PMCA4a splice variant missing in testis is epididymally expressed, along with 4b, and may be transferred to sperm. Innervation and immunohistochemical characteristics of epididymis in Alpaca camelid Vicugna pacos. Full Text Available Alpacas Vicugna pacos are domesticated camelids indigenous to south America and recently also bred in Europe and Italy for their high quality wool.

There is little data available regarding the innervation of the male reproductive tract of this species. In the present study, the distribution of protein gene product 9. Immunopositivity to PGP 9. The results of the present study suggest a role for the innervations in modulate reproductive functions in the alpaca epididymis. To study the clinicopathological characteristics of papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis. Using routine pathology and immunohistochemistry, we observed the surgically obtained samples from 2 cases of papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis , analyzed their pathological features and clinical presentations, and reviewed the related literature.

The 2 patients were both adult males. The tumors typically manifested as painless swelling in the epididymis , with occasionally dull pain and tenesmus in 1 of the cases. Pathologically, the lesions exhibited three morphological features, i. Surgery is the first choice for its treatment. Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis in a year-old survivor of stage IV neuroblastoma. Full Text Available Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis PCE is the second most common benign neoplasm of the epididymis [1].

It is very uncommon and has never been reported in a prepubertal male. It may occur sporadically, but more often occurs in association with von Hippel- Lindau VHL disease [2]. There have been over 60 reports of patients with such tumors, with the youngest patient being 16 years old. We present the case of a year old male with a history of stage IV neuroblastoma. He presented with a left paratesticular mass that was discovered on routine follow up physical exam with his pediatric oncologist.

He was asymptomatic at the time of presentation with no signs or symptoms of hypoandrogenism. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was negative for lymphadenopathy and additional disease sites. Given the patient's history of stage IV neuroblastoma, there was suspicion of yolk sac tumor or metastases; he underwent an open radical left orchiectomy.

Frozen section was consistent with yolk sac tumor, however final pathology revealed normal testicle with PCE. To date, this patient is the youngest reported patient with this diagnosis; furthermore papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis has never been reported in a patient with neuroblastoma. Keywords: Papillary cystadenoma, Epididymis , Prepubertal male, Neuroblastoma.

Lactate dehydrogenase activity of rat epididymis and spermatozoa: Effect of constant light. The epididymis displays regional variations in the morphology and metabolic properties of its epithelium which are relevant for the progressive development of mature sperm characteristics. The epididymis has spontaneous peristaltic contractions and receives sympathetic innervation that is modulated by melatonin, a hormone synthesized and released by the pineal gland.

Constant lighting disrupts melatonin synthesis and secretion. Animals were exposed from birth to an illumination schedule of 14 h light: 10 h dark group L:D. At 60 days of age one group of animals was submitted to constant light over 50 days group L:L.

In order to test the fertilizing ability, the rats of each group were mated with soliciting estrous females. Constant light increased protein concentration and LDH activity in caput as well as in cauda of total epididymis. On the contrary, in epididymal tissue, the protein content decreased in both epididymal sections compared with controls. When enzymatic activity was expressed in Units per spermatozoa, constant light induced a significant reduction of total LDH and LDHC4 in caput and cauda spermatozoa while LDH activity of epididymal tissue was not affected. In spite of the decrease in LDH per sperm cell when rats were exposed to constant light, in total epididymis epididymis tissue plus sperm cells content and in spermatozoa, values of enzyme activities expressed per.

Mitigating effects of Jambul against lead induced toxicity in epididymis and vas deferens of mice. Full Text Available Background: Precious fruits like jambul are neglected and wasted while environmental pollutants like lead intake remain overlooked. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Jambul pulp extract on lead detrimental effects in pseudostratified epithelium and the stereocilia of mice epididymis and vas deferens. The Pb and Pb-J were provided 50ppm Pb in drinking water ad libitum for 15 days and Pb free water for the next 5 days. The Pb-J group received 0.

Control group was not given any treatment. Organs epididymis and vas deference were recovered on 21st day after euthanasia. The organs were finally processed for histological and micrometric studies. Results: Marked histologic and micrometric changes in both organs were noted in Pb group. Prominent signs of apoptosis vacuolations in the corpus pseudostratified endothelium and the destruction of stereocilia of the epididymis and vas deferens in Pb compared to control group were observed.

Evident signs of recovery, in both organs, such as proliferation and rearrangements in pseudostratified endothelium and the stereocilia along with convincing recovery in micrometric parameters were observed in Pb-J group. Conclusion: The results indicate that epididymis and vas deferens are highly sensitive to Pb exposure while Jambul pulp extract has shown rich mitigating potentials against such histopathologies.

Identification and characterization of a new member of serpin family- HongrES1 in rat epididymis. It contained bp nucleotides and its predictedprotein had amino acid residues including a serpin serine protease inhibitor conserved domain. Tissuedistribution pattern showed it was specifically expressed in adult rat epididymis ; moreover, in situ hybridyza-tion indicated this gene was expressed in a limited region of the cauda epididymis near vas deference. Suchkind of expression pattern sugested that HongrES1 had potential function in male reproduction.

Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis : Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide. Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions.

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To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 Cx43 and androgen receptor AR expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis.

Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days and GD20 and GD80 and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days and after birth PD2 and PD Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.

Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher p p p p Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling.

This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx Papillary mesothelioma of the albuginea testis. An eleven-year-old boy is presented with symptom of a torsion of the testis. Scrotal exploration revealed a papillary mesothelioma of the tunica albuginea which is extremely rare in childhood. We report 1 case and review the literature.

In this anomaly, testes are not located normally in the scrotum. The occurrence of abnormalities of hormones control or anatomy process that is required in the normal process of lowering the testes can cause UDT. UDT can be differentiated into palpable and nonpalpable. The diagnosis of UDT can be known through physical examination. However, if the testes are impalpable, laparoscopy can be done to determine the position of the testis. Hormonal therapy to overcome UDT is still under controversy. The action that often done is surgery, called orchidopexy.

The most serious complication of orchidopexy is testicular atrophy. Infertility may occur in 1 to 3 of 4 adult males and the risk of occurrence of malignancies is increased by as much as times higher in men with a history of UDT. Immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptor in rat caput epididymis during postnatal development. Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental pattern of androgen receptor AR in caput epididymis.

Materials and methods: In this study three randomly selected rats were sacrificed at ages 21, 56, 90 and days old. All male rats were anesthetized with ethyl ether before killing. Afterwards the tissue samples were embedded in paraffin for routine histological methods. To solve the antigen masking problem, we performed microwave stimulated antigen retrieval technique before the immunohistochemical staining.

Results: In all age groups of rats studied, positive immunohistochemical staining for the AR appeared in nuclei of epididymal cells. The staining intensity of AR positive cells did not change depending on age. In caput epididymis , immunostainable AR was found in tubular epithelial cells principal cells, basal cells and apical cells and peritubular smooth muscle cells. The AR staining in the epithelial cells appeared to be stronger than in the peritubular smooth muscle cells. In the epithelial cells; staining intensity was stronger in principal cells than in basal cells and apical cells.

Conclusion: Staining intensity of AR positive epididymal cells irrespective of age indicated the necessity of androgens for postnatal differentiation and maintaining the structure of the epididymis. Stronger staining intensity in principal cells suggested that principal cells are more sensitive to androgen stimulation.

J Clin Exp Invest ; 2 3: In vivo sodium, potassium, and sperm concentrations in the rat epididymis. In vivo samples of epididymal fluids were obtained through the use of micropuncture techniques. A large water loss from the epididymal lumen was calculated, as well as net losses of both cations.

Primary lymphoma of the testis. Seventeen patients with initial presentation of lymphoma of the testis were evaluated at the Mayo Clinic between and The mean age of the patients was 69 years with 15 of the 17 patients age 60 and older at the time of diagnosis. All histologies were diffuse according to the Rappaport classification with 12 of 17 patients being histiocytic. Four patients were treated initially with chemotherapy. In all four patients the lymphoma recurred, in two patients in the central nervous system CNS. There were no survivors at two years in those patients presenting with Stage IV disease.

As patients with testicular lymphoma have a relatively high incidence of secondary involvement of Waldeyer's ring and the CNS, careful evaluation of these areas should be performed as part of the routine staging procedures. In view of the high incidence of secondary involvement of distant sites, systemic treatment should be given full consideration in addition to local irradiation as part of the initial treatment of patients with localized disease. Effects of Tribulus tertesris extract on body weight, testis histopathology and size in rats.

Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris TT is a flowering plant, traditionally being used as an aphrodisiac agent. Studies shown that TT extract increases testosterone levels and produces aphrodisiac effects. Nowadays is a major ingredient of most aphrodisiac drugs but there is no document about its testicular pathology in long term use. The purpose of our study was to identify the effects in rats of oral TT on body weight, testicular histopathology and weight at normal and double doses to presume its probable negative effects in human while using exaggerated for long period of time.

Rats were weighted at day 1, and At the end of the study, all were weighted, anaesthetized and the left testis excised. All stages of the experiment were conducted as blind. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. IV: Cellular localization of androgen sensitive nonspecific esterase in the epididymis. Nonspecific esterase of mouse epididymis has previously been studied histochemically, using alpha naphthyl-acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate techniques, as well as certain inhibitors.

Epithelial cell types of the epididymis have been characterized, and certain esterase isozymes in a particular Regional differences in steroidogenesis and hormone levels in the epididymis and vas deferens of adult rats. In vivo and in vitro studies with different parts of the epididymis and vas deferens were carried out to determine their inherent capacity to synthesize steroids and to correlate with the endogenous levels with or without the administration of hCG. Incubation with 14C-labelled pregnenolone and testosterone demonstrated that caput epididymidis was more active than other parts in synthesizing testosterone from 14C-pregnenolone and in converting labelled testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone DHT.

The cauda epididymidis and vas deferens accumulated more radioactivity in progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA than the caput epididymidis. The levels of DHT, testosterone and 4-androstene-3, dione in the caput epididymidis were reduced after ligation of ipselateral efferent ductules indicating the testicular origin of these steroids.

The cauda epididymidis and vas deferens had higher levels of progesterone as compared to the other regions of the epididymis , which were decreased after the ligation. Intravenous injection of hCG increased the levels of oestradiol beta in all tissues and markedly in the cauda epididymidis and vas deferens. The high levels of progesterone and oestradiol beta present in these organs may be of importance in maintaining fertilizing ability of spermatozoa stored in the cauda epididymidis and vas deferens and their transport. Activin receptor subunits in normal and dysfunctional adult human testis.

The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown Development and descent of the testis in relation to cryptorchidism. The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 INSL3. Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown Histological changes in cryptorchid testes demonstrate disturbed development. Conclusion: Since testicular descent is regulated by testis -derived hormones, cryptorchidism may reflect a functional defect of the testis Conclusion: Left varicocele degree is associated with decrease in testis volume.

There was no relationship between testis volume and body mass index or smoking habit. Early varicocele diagnosis is important to protect testis volume. This study examined the effects of continuous low-dose-rate radiation exposure 3. Testicular weight, seminiferous tubular diameter, and seminiferous epithelial depth were significantly decreased in the mice irradiated with 2 Gy at 1 and 9 days after exposure.

Moreover, the low-dose-rate radiation exposure induced an increase in malondialdehyde levels, and a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in the testis of mice irradiated with 2 Gy at 1 and 9 days after exposure. The sperm count and motility in the epididymis also decreased in mice irradiated with 2 Gy at 1 and 9 days after exposure, whereas there was no significant effect on the proportion of abnormal sperm.

The expressions of DNA methlytransferases-1 and histone deacetylases 1 in testes irradiated with 2 Gy were significantly decreased compared with the sham group. In conclusion, the damage exerted on the testes and epididymis largely depended on the total dose of low-dose-rate radiation. Suicide in men with testis cancer. Depression, anxiety and aggression are documented in testis cancer patients and can result in death from suicides; however, their risk of suicide is not defined. We report suicide rates among testis cancer patients in the USA and determine factors associated with higher rates.

Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors affecting suicide rate. Among 23, patients followed for , person-years, suicide rate was The standardised mortality ratio for suicide was 1. Other patient and disease characteristics were not predictive. Full Text Available Objective. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: the high dose arsenic infected group Rats were treated with arsenic through drinking water for 6 consecutive months.

Compared with the control group, in each infected group, the average densitometry values of apoptotic cells in the epididymis tubules were significantly lower. The aim of this study was to explore the principle of moblile echogenicities in epididymis in patients with a history of postvasectomy or infertility, which were reported as the characteristic sonographic sign of filarial infection. We reported a year-old man presented with a 3-year history of infertility after marriage.

Ultrasound imaging revealed an enlarged body in the inner left epididymis along with innumerable punctate mobile echogenicities, which showed random to-and-fro movements in the left epididymis. This had previously been recognized as the sonographic filarial dance sign of live filarial worms or microfilaria. The patient subsequently underwent needle aspiration of the left epididymis.

Histopathological examination confirmed that the mobile echogenicities were a large number of macrophages with phagocytized sperm or clumps of agglutinated sperm. Our report includes a video clip that will help familiarize readers with this phenomenon. Our case highlighted that moblile echogenicities should be an important sign for epididymal obstruction to initiate corresponding treatment. Impact of male fertility status on the transcriptome of the bovine epididymis. The highly regulated gene expression along the bovine epididymis is affected by the fertility status of bulls used for artificial insemination.

In mammals, sperm maturation and storage occur in the epididymis. Each epididymal segment has his own transcriptomic signature that modulates the intraluminal composition and consequently governs sequential modifications of the maturing male gamete.

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Epididymides from six Holstein bulls with documented fertility were used. Bovine cDNA microarray probing and bioinformatic tools were used to identify genes that are differentially expressed in caput, corpus and cauda epididymidal tissues of bulls with the documented fertility index. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed a clear separation between caput, corpus and cauda epididymides.

Some transcripts characterize a particular anatomical segment, whereas others are expressed in two out of three epididymal segments. Gene ontology analysis allowed deduction of specific functions played by each epididymal segment. The transcriptional profiles between fertile versus sub-fertile conditions clustered most closely in the corpus and cauda segments, whereas the profiles in the caput segment were distinct between fertile and sub-fertile bulls.

Further work is required to link these. The impact of long-term exposure to space environment on adult mammalian organisms: a study on mouse thyroid and testis. Full Text Available Hormonal changes in humans during spaceflight have been demonstrated but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Glands were submitted to morphological and functional analysis.

In thyroids, volumetric ratios between thyrocytes and colloid were measured. Thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were quantitized by immunoblotting and localized by immunofluorescence. In space-exposed animals, both basal and thyrotropin-stimulated cAMP production were always higher. Also, the structure of thyroid follicles appeared more organized, while thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were overexpressed. Unlike the control samples, in the space samples thyrotropin receptor and caveolin-1 were both observed at the intracellular junctions, suggesting their interaction in specific cell membrane microdomains.

Epididymal sperm number was counted. Also, the expression of androgen and follicle stimulating hormone receptors increased while lutenizing hormone receptor levels were not affected. The tubular architecture was altered and the sperm cell number was significantly reduced in spaceflight mouse epididymis approx. The roles of TAM receptor tyrosine kinases in the mammalian testis and immunoprivileged sites.

Three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase family, including Tyro3, Axl, and Mer, are collectively called as TAM receptors. Genetic studies have shown that TAM receptors are essential regulators of the tissue homeostasis in immunoprivileged sites, including the testis , retina and brain. This review summarizes our current understanding of TAM signaling in the testis and other immunoprivileged tissues, as well as highlights topics that are worthy of further investigation. The epididymis is an organ involved in the maturation, transport, and storage of sperm prior to ejaculation.

As epididymis is exposed to a constant risk of inflammatory conditions that may lead to transient or permanent sterility, protection of this organ from pathogens is an essential aspect of reproductive physiology. RNA was extracted from the epididymis of healthy pubertal, sexually mature and aged birds, and from sexually mature SE infected birds. SE infection resulted in a significant induction of AvBD 1, 9, 10, 12 and 14, as well as TLR , , , 4, 5 and 7 genes, in the epididymis of sexually mature roosters, compared to healthy birds of the same age.

These findings provide strong evidence to suggest that the rooster epididymis is capable of initiating an inflammatory response to Salmonella, through activation of certain members of the AvBD and TLR gene families. Radioautographic study of two target organs epididymis and femoral glands after injection of 3H testosterone in a non-mammalian vertebrate, the viviparous Lizard. After 3 H testosterone injection into castrated males of the Lizard Lacerta vivipara, the radioactive compound is detected by radioautography of epididymis , femoral glands, gut and liver.

Between 1 hr. This submammalian model is consistent with those previously described for mammals [fr. The fabrication of magnetic particle-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for human epididymis protein-4 detection in ovarian cancer. Full Text Available The magnetic particles have a significant influence on the immunoassay detection and cancer therapy. Herein, the chemiluminescence immunoassay combined with the magnetic particles MPCLIA was presented for the clinical determination and analysis of human epididymis protein 4 HE4 in the human serum.

The satisfactory recovery rate of the method in the serum ranged from Moreover, the results showed the good correlation with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA, with the correlation coefficient of 0. This proposed method has been successfully applied to the clinical determination of HE4 in the human serum.

Keywords: Chemiluminescence immunoassay, Magnetic particles, Human epididymis protein 4. Five-week-old male ICR mice were divided into four groups; control group and three different concentrations of AM treated groups. Each group was treated for 5 days a week for 5 weeks. Testis samples were collected for real time quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Epididymis was taken out and used for sperm analysis using the computer assisted semen analysis CASA system.

AM enhances sperm values such as sperm count and motility compared to control. Epididymis response partly compensates for spermatozoa oxidative defects in snGPx4 and GPx5 double mutant mice. Full Text Available We report here that spermatozoa of mice lacking both the sperm nucleus glutathione peroxidase 4 snGPx4 and the epididymal glutathione peroxidase 5 GPx5 activities display sperm nucleus structural abnormalities including delayed and defective nuclear compaction, nuclear instability and DNA damage. We show that to counteract the GPx activity losses, the epididymis of the double KO animals mounted an antioxydant response resulting in a strong increase in the global H 2O 2-scavenger activity especially in the cauda epididymis.

Despite these compensatory mechanisms cauda-stored spermatozoa of double mutant animals show high levels of DNA oxidation, increased fragmentation and greater susceptibility to nuclear decondensation. Nevertheless, the enzymatic epididymal salvage response is sufficient to maintain full fertility of double KO males whatever their age, crossed with young WT female mice. Full Text Available Leiomyomas are the second most common tumors of epididymis. Patients with leiomyomas are sometimes misdiagnosed with testicular tumors. A Case of a patient with a scrotal mass presenting with testicular torsion is reported.

Concurrent occurrence of testicular torsion and epididymal leiomyoma is an extremely rare condition. Cystic dysplasia of the testis : a very rare paediatric tumor of the testis. To describe a case of cystic dysplasia of the testis CDT , an uncommon cause of scrotal swelling in the pediatric patient.

Clinic, therapy, fertility, and radiographic and pathologic findings are discussed and the 30 previously reported cases are reviewed. A 9-year-old boy presented with asymptomatic scrotal swelling. A scrotal ultrasound showed a multicystic scrotal mass in the rete testis and an ipsilateral renal agenesis. The growth in size of the mass forced the authors to perform an operative exploration.

Intraoperative findings included a multicystic mass in the rete testis of the right testicle. Testicle-sparing total removal of the multicystic mass was performed and the pathologic examination revealed a benign, multilobulated configuration of the cysts in the region of the rete testis.

These findings were similar to those found in previously reported cases of CDT.