Addressing the social norms question, Heise described a review that she carried out of 88 comparable studies across time that looked at social norms as predictors of violence as well as at changes in social norms causing a possible decrease in the prevalence of violence.
Her program included stakeholders in the preliminary research and in the design, implementation, and evaluation. She stressed that currently, these same leaders are in the process of scaling the program up without additional funds by transitioning the programs into the hands of the local government. In the next session forum members, invited speakers, and public participants split up into small working groups. In each group the participants, facilitated by a forum member, discussed how their own violence-prevention activities currently do or could address social and cultural norms.
Groups also discussed the impact of social norms on women, inequality associated with age, and gender equity, including sexual orientation and gender identity. She also mentioned the importance of communities working together to build collaborations through cross-sector awareness and promoted integrated approaches.
Suruchi Sood of the Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health began by asking the question: What are the effects of communication for development C4D approaches, in which individuals share ideas and knowledge on a chosen subject, used for addressing violence against children? He then presented findings based on a systemic review of C4D manuscripts to assess the use of a conceptual model to predict change.
Sood said an understanding of where individuals are in the stages of change helps to build the knowledge base needed to promote positive social norms. Creating change requires addressing the diverse needs of the entire social norms environment e. Lori Dorfman of the Berkeley Media Studies Group said that news is often reported as a series of individual events without adequate context, making it difficult to see the full story that can help identify what needs to be prevented as well as what. She said that not having the full story generates misinformation synergy, creating distorted views of crime and race, and limits the opportunity to have a real conversation about what is going on.
Dorfman identified how the news media set agendas that define how viewers understand violence. This understanding, in turn, reaches the decision makers responsible for deciding what will or will not be done about the issue. She said that despite many strengths of news reporting, criminal justice perspectives dominate the news, and prevention is largely absent. She said that there is a need to reframe the news by moving beyond the individual to the landscape, emphasizing public values in order for viewers to understand why violence prevention matters and to recognize a solution, and using communications to support action.
She stressed that more complete news coverage would inform decision makers and the public about prevention, what it means, and why it matters. Mallika Dutt spoke about Breakthrough, an organization that uses innovative prevention strategies to address the underlying causes of violence through changing culture. After showing a brief video, Dutt said that people today live in a culture where the threat of violence is an integral part of how certain norms are maintained. She described how Bell Bajao uses media arts and technology to have both local conversations and conversations at scale.
Following the panel, multiple participants asked about using entertainment for educational purposes, including the evidence base underlying its use and its cost effectiveness. Sood said that evidence has demonstrated that educational entertainment is a communication form that works; for example, soap operas illustrate positive social norms and are a cost-effective health intervention.
Pauline Muchina, a member of the Future African Leaders Project and a theologian, defined religion as an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate to humanity and an order of existence.
Reflecting on research based on African cultures, she said that religion shapes cultures and social, political, and economic lives and is a powerful force influencing social norms. Muchina said that social norms and religious moral values and beliefs are intertwined and that when social norms and religious traditions and practices come together, they significantly affect the way men and women interact in society, homes, and institutions.
As an example, she explained that due to cultural and religious gender norms, African women and girls lack the social and economic power to control their own bodies.
She said that all religions today maintain male social dominance within social structures, with religious texts encouraging the exclusion of women from leadership in the family, church, and society, influencing the way people behave toward each other and how women are treated in their homes, in society, and at work. Muchina stressed the need to promote theology to change religious institutions in a manner that ends the negative effects on women and girls.
She noted that religious leaders have a platform to address two critical areas: teaching men and boys to promote gender equality and ending GBV. Kapya John Kaoma, a pastor, human rights activist, and visiting researcher at Boston University, spoke about the global impact of religion and the significance of religion in the human experience. He said that while religious beliefs are diverse across the globe, there is a common disregard for and discrimination toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
LGBT persons. Another challenge he mentioned is the assumption in America that religion does not play a large role in everyday life, although it is a part of all cultures and communities. To bring about social change, he said, there is a need to understand the role of religion and its influence on certain actions and to understand how to transform these actions and make positive changes within the confines of a specific religion.
He said that one can find various sacred texts that demand respect and human rights for all people; however, LGBT persons are not always included in the conversation about human rights. Kaoma stressed the need to speak out against violence experienced globally by LGBT persons and the need for an increased number of women in leadership positions in faith communities.
He said that through using group education, Program H focuses on critical reflections about gender norms combined with youth-led activism or campaigns. He explained how Program H helps men and boys 1 learn about gender norms and attitudes and develop new attitudes and skills, 2 rehearse within the safe environment of group education, 3 internalize attitudes and norms, 4 live in a gender-equitable way in life and relationships, and 5 achieve positive outcomes in gender equity and their own health.
Marques described how this is rooted in supportive influences and structure on the individual level using peer support, role modeling, and action through advocacy and the systems level policy, services, institutions and how the outcomes from nine quasi-experimental impact evaluations in 8 countries over a year period found that systematically, after the intervention, there was less support for gender-inequitable attitudes and increased support for gender-equitable attitudes.
The study also found that changes in attitudes were strongly associated with changes in self-reported behaviors and that gender-equitable attitudes were associated with a greater knowledge and awareness of health risks. Gannon Gillespie of Tostan provided an overview of the Community Empowerment Program CEP , a 3-year, locally driven, community-engaged education program that is rooted in human rights. He said that the CEP facilitator is local, trained in the curriculum, and culturally congruent with the community and is responsible for creating a space safe for dialogue and for how the host community agrees to host the facilitator, participate, and build or repurpose a classroom.
He explained that in years 2 and 3, the program expands to include lessons in literacy, math, micro-credit, management, and small projects. The model grows as each classroom participant adopts another learner outside of the class and creates a community-based learning environment. Starting off the discussion, Heise said that there is a need to create partnerships in which people understand the imperatives of working together with researchers to optimize programs and then evaluate them. Concerning partnerships, Marques said that this is an opportunity to look at the intersection of public health and the social justice field; the evidence exists, she said, to demonstrate changing attitudes and beliefs, which can, to some extent, affect health and behavior.
Marques added that this is an opportunity for nongovernmental organizations and researchers to say that here is a viable alternative, a new way to approach research by community engagement and leadership. Concerning evaluation data, Gillespie said that the CEP participants are talking about human rights in concrete ways and that he has found increased participation of women in the various levels of decision making. Chronic violence is a complex problem affecting at least one-quarter of the global population, said Tani Adams, coordinator of the International Working Group on Chronic Violence and Human Development.
She said that exposure to chronic violence weakens the capacity of individuals and families to develop and live healthy lives, including having a negative. She also proposed the following new approaches to violence prevention: strengthen primary networks, enhance the capacity of community through collective learning and strength-based strategies, address chronic and collective trauma through a range of programmatic efforts, focus on human responsibilities over human rights, implement efforts to protect those working to end violence, and identify opportunities for real structural change by looking at political reform and economic development.
He added that due to the high levels of exposure to violence, many communities are de-sensitized to violence. He provided a description of the Peace Management Initiative PMI , which works in Jamaica to interrupt community violence and reduce trauma through community safety planning and empowerment, gang demobilization, healing and reconciliation, and community engagement to change values.
He explained how PMI is setting up an incentive-based framework composed of rules and terms of agreement between groups in conflict that also uses incentive-based awards to encourage a community and groups within the same community to reduce levels of violence in their own local spaces. He also described how PMI actively engages the community to address community safety planning and empowerment, getting the wider community to be part of the process and the solution. Hutchinson described the successful work in Browns Town, where deaths due to gang violence dropped from 50 between and to fewer than 25 between and He credited the community for taking charge of its own safety and for being more open and accessible to development work.
They are two and a half more times more likely to be sexually assaulted or raped than other women, General said, and Alaska Native women report rates of domestic violence up to 10 times the national average and physical assault victimization rates up to 12 times higher. General added that the murder rate on some reservations is 10 times the national average and that native women and children are especially vulnerable to human trafficking. These disproportionately high rates of violence are due in part, she said, to a U.
She outlined advocacy efforts to ensure that the decisions and commitments outlined within the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples , which includes the right of self-determination and the rights and special needs of indigenous women and children, are fulfilled. She said that international advocacy is critical and that the international community must respond to the epidemic of violence against indigenous women in the United States and everywhere, including advocating for mechanisms to ensure that perpetrators of violence against indigenous women and children are brought to justice.
Tomaszewski asked how one could use the idea of community connection to engage youth and encourage them to listen and connect to others in the community. Cervantes commented on the role of the arms trade and illegal trafficking of guns as a critical element of the cycle of violence. Gun trafficking, according to Adams, needs a systems-level change in how data are collected.
Referencing the. Referring to the importance of community connection, Hutchinson stressed having communities make interventions. Hutchison said that PMI uses a trauma response unit that goes into a community to the scene of violence and treats the victims and perpetrators and community as part of that same response while treating the whole community. He presented evidence that LGBTQ youth in the United States face higher instances of family rejection, bullying and mistreatment in school, victimization, and criminalization and are disproportionately represented in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems; they also make up as much as 40 percent of the homeless youth population.
He added that there is overwhelming scientific evidence that demonstrates that conversion therapy, especially when it is practiced on young people, is neither medically nor ethically appropriate, and can cause substantial harm. Kennedy outlined several approaches that could help end the use of conversion therapy, such as ending discrimination against and negative social attitudes toward LGBTQ individuals and identities; training and educating behavioral health providers; and using legislative, regulatory, and other legal efforts to stop conversion therapy as well as discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender, or gender identity.
He described how at UNAIDS the discussion is framed through the lens of HIV, as the work to prevent violence and discrimination throughout the HIV outbreak has provided lessons that can be applied in efforts to improve health and well-being. According to the map there are 75 countries in which adult same-sex consensual sexual conduct is considered a crime or an LGBT person has been criminally prosecuted under other laws; in 7 of these countries same-sex sexual conduct is punishable by death.
Doing the mapping exercise, Burzynski said, provided a number of lessons about the impact of and response to violence and discrimination aimed at LGBT persons: social transformation is under way in all countries; discussions about same-sex sexual relations are occurring globally; there are multi-layered and complex relationships among LGBT people; conflation of misinformation and fact must be confronted, or else misinformation becomes reality and truth; criminalization of LGBT behaviors matters; humanizing LGBT people makes a difference; allies, partnerships, and collaborators are critical; and leadership matters.
Burzynski referred to the historic United Nations statement on ending violence and discrimination against LGBT and intersex people. Regarding creating connections among and within communities, Kennedy urged that more opportunities be created for communities to seek out dialogues on these issues, as it takes some time to unlearn discrimination and misinformation and to learn new behaviors. Kennedy then highlighted the Family Acceptance Project, an evidence-based practice that works with LGBTQ youth who experience family rejection and with their family members to create a supportive family environment.
Susan Markham of USAID spoke about the stereotypes, history, and current situation for women as victims and also about the role of women as perpetrators of violence, fighters, mediators, and peacemakers. Markham said that there is often a combination of factors that drive people toward considering engaging in violent extremism, including deficiencies in governance. She said that USAID is examining how targeted investments in women, peace, and security can address security-related objectives by strengthening the role of women and youth in political and peace processes at the community level.
Markham highlighted two critical documents. The first was the National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security, 2 and she emphasized its commitment to community level engagement.
Naureen Chowdhury Fink of the Global Center on Cooperative Security spoke remotely on counter-terrorism CT and countering violent extremism CVE , and she noted that CT is much more associated with large responses to terrorism, while CVE is more involved with prevention and working with communities and relies on a combination of hard power and soft power. A major change in the approach to CVE, Fink said, has been the inclusion of community engagement, of gender, the development of preventive approaches that use education and strategic communication, and the shift in viewing civil society activism as a means of developing a much more sustainable and locally resonant approach to terrorism prevention.
She said that at the policy level she has noticed the twin approach getting more positive responses. Workshop participant Markham began the panel discussion by asking about the pros and cons of having CT separate from CVE instead of having them together and also asking if there is any specific gender impact from separating them. Fink said that combining CT and CVE is beneficial, as CT requires a balanced approach, but he also noted a potential drawback of pairing them: when the two are not done in a coordinated manner, there is a danger that CT will negatively affect CVE.
For example, she said, a real concern is that when CT and CVE efforts are present in the same community and may or may not be known to one another and, at the same time, community members are encouraged to come forward to share their knowledge and expertise and share the threats they might identify, there can be a response from law enforcement that is disproportionate and discourages further engagement and cooperation from community members. Bissell said that the partnership is committed to, yet challenged by, having children and youth engaged in a way that is transparent and democratic and that ensures that participants are safe while addressing some very dangerous issues.
She provided an overview of what the partnership hopes to do over the next 5 years: ensure that violence. She said that the partnership has a sharp focus on ending violence against children. McCaw, the moderator, opened the discussion by noting the life burden of violence and the intersectionality of all forms of violence across communities and suggesting that there are opportunities to think through strategies that are being applied with a specific community that might provide ideas or information transferable to another setting or community. Several panelists addressed faith communities.
Heise said that researchers may be reluctant to engage faith communities due to discomfort or uncertainty about how to challenge religious ideas and concerns about bigotry. Muchina added that there is a need for additional research on social norms, and she said that the research must include the community if one is to understand the impact of religion on social norms.
Panelists also discussed the power of the lived experience, community-level engagement, and meeting the growing needs of communities affected by violence. Burzynski spoke of working with people who experience violence and discrimination daily and of the importance of breaking down silos and finding local solutions, while Adams stressed the importance of supporting an intersectoral approach.
Muchina said that the greatest challenge right now is providing mental services for young people because some of them are living with HIV and they are becoming young adults with very few agencies dealing with mental health or the impact of violence for either the perpetrators or victims of violence.
How Traditions Live and Die. Olivier Morin. Foundations of Human Interaction. Provides an alternative to 'high-fidelity' theories of cultural. [BOOKS] How Traditions Live and Die (Foundations of Human Interaction) by Olivier Morin. Book file. PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can.
Neil Roughley. Anna Dina L. Robert B. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Description Distributed Agency presents an interdisciplinary inroad into the latest thinking about the distributed nature of agency: what it's like, what are its conditions of possibility, and what are its consequences. The book's 25 chapters are written by a wide range of scholars, from anthropology, biology, cognitive science, linguistics, philosophy, psychology, geography, law, economics, and sociology.
While each chapter takes up different materials using different methods, they all chart relations between the key elements of agency: intentionality, causality, flexibility and accountability. Each chapter seeks to explain how and why such relations are distributed-not just across individuals, but also across bodies and minds, people and things, spaces and times.
To do this, the authors work through empirical studies of particular cases, while also offering reviews and syntheses of key ideas from the authors' respective research traditions. Our goals with this collection of essays are to assemble insights from new research on the anatomy of human agency, to address divergent framings of the issues from different disciplines, and to suggest directions for new debates and lines of research. We hope that it will be a resource for researchers working on allied topics, and for students learning about the elements of human-specific modes of shared action, from causality, intentionality, and personhood to ethics, punishment, and accountability.
Other books in this series. Add to basket. Relationship Thinking N. The Origins of Fairness Nicolas Baumard. Intercorporeality Christian Meyer. Distributed Agency N. Accountability in Social Interaction Jeffrey D. Requesting Responsibility Jorg Zinken. The Normative Animal?
Table of contents i. Contributors ii. Elements of Agency N.