The Origins of Cultural Differences and Their Impact on Management

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Get familiar with major holidays for the cultural groups your facility serves. You can find out more about various celebrations from religious organizations, hospital chaplains, and patients themselves. Expect to schedule routine health appointments, diagnostic tests, surgery, and other major procedures to avoid such holidays. If their holiday rituals aren't contradicted in the health care setting, try to accommodate them. The cultural meanings associated with food vary widely. For example, sharing meals may be associated with solidifying social or business ties, celebrating life events, expressing appreciation, recognizing accomplishment, expressing wealth or social status, and validating social, cultural, or religious ceremonial functions.

Culture determines which foods are served and when, the number and frequency of meals, who eats with whom, and who gets the choicest portions. Culture also determines how foods are prepared and served, how they're eaten with chopsticks, fingers, or forks , and where people shop for their favorite food. Religious practices may include fasting, abstaining from selected foods at particular times, and avoiding certain medications, such as pork-derived insulin. Practices may also include the ritualistic use of food and beverages.

Many groups tend to feast, often with family and friends, on selected holidays. For example, many Christians eat large dinners on Christmas and Easter and traditionally consume certain high-calorie, high-fat foods, such as seasonal cookies, pastries, and candies. These culturally based dietary practices are especially significant when caring for patients with diabetes, hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and other conditions in which dietary modifications are important parts of the treatment regimen.

Why Management Innovation Matters

The Origins of Cultural Differences and Their Impact on Management [Jack Scarborough] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A clear and . , English, Book edition: The origins of cultural differences and their impact on management / Jack Scarborough. Scarborough, Jack, Get this edition.

Along with psychosocial adaptations, you also need to consider culture's physiologic impact on how patients respond to treatment, particularly medications. Data have been collected for many years regarding different effects some medications have on persons of diverse ethnic or cultural origins. For example, because of genetic predisposition, patients may metabolize drugs in different ways or at different rates.

Think of how antihypertensive drugs don't work as well for African Americans as they do for white ones. Culturally competent medication administration requires you to consider ethnicity and related factors—including values and beliefs about herbal supplements, dietary intake, and genetic factors that can affect how effective a treatment is and how well patients adhere to the treatment plan. Various cultural groups have wide-ranging beliefs about man's relationship with the environment.

A patient's attitude toward his treatment and prognosis is influenced by whether he generally believes that man has some control over events or whether he's more fatalistic and believes that chance and luck determine what will happen. If your patient holds the former view, you're likely to see good cooperation with health care regimens; he'll see the benefit of developing behavior that could improve his health. Some American Indians and Asian Americans are likely to fall into this category.

In contrast, Hispanic and Appalachian patients tend to be more fatalistic about nature, health, and death, feeling that they can't control these things. Patients who believe that they can't do much to improve their health through their actions may need more teaching and reinforcement about how diet and medications can affect their health. Provide information in a nonjudgmental way and respect their fatalistic beliefs.

Transcultural nursing means being sensitive to cultural differences as you focus on individual patients, their needs, and their preferences. Show your patients your respect for their culture by asking them about it, their beliefs, and related health care practices. They'll respond to your honesty and interest, and most will be happy to tell you more about their culture.

Establishing an environment where cultural differences are respected begins with effective communication. This occurs not just from speaking the same language, but also through body language and other cues, such as voice, tone, and loudness. But at times you'll be on your own, interacting with patients and families who don't speak English. To overcome the barriers you'll face, use these tips. Alcoholic products and beverages including extracts containing alcohol, such as vanilla and lemon. Shellfish and scavenger fish shrimp, crab, lobster, escargot, catfish.

Fish with fins and scales are permissible. Beverages containing caffeine stimulants coffee, tea, colas, and selected carbonated soft drinks. Note: Optional vegetarianism is encouraged. Registration Deadline: January 31, Provider Accreditation:. All of its home study activities are classified for Texas nursing continuing education requirements as Type I. Your certificate is valid in all states. This means that your certificate of earned contact hours is valid no matter where you live. Payment and Discounts:. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server.

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Colleague's Email:. Separate multiple e-mails with a ;. Thought you might appreciate this item s I saw at Nursing Send a copy to your email. Some error has occurred while processing your request. Please try after some time. Article as PDF 1. Nursing January - Volume 35 - Issue - p 14,16,18,21, Be aware of cultural trends while respecting individual patients' preferences. The key is to be aware of cultural trends while respecting individual patients' preferences. Back to Top Article Outline. Smeltzer and B.

Giger, J. The association among there three main variables was illustrated as Figure 1. The association between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. The values shown were standardized regression coefficient and value in parenthesis was partially standardized regression coefficient.

However, by adopting regression analysis, we also found that leadership behavior impacts on organizational culture. Laschinger et al. Mayo [ 30 ] argued that the key determinant of job satisfaction was group interaction, and highlighted the importance of good leadership and satisfying personal relations in the workplace.

Management and leadership behavior at the hospital affected nurses' job satisfaction [ 31 ]. The research also discovered that leadership behavior will also influence employee job satisfaction.

As well as the above-described individual factors, the research also showed that factors at the organization level, such as the organizational culture, also have an effect on job satisfaction. This result is consistent with the results of Gifford et al. It is recommended that it is also important for hospital administrators to establish a good organizational infrastructure in addition to improving the working environment in order to increase employee job satisfaction.

Decisions about patient care are often made by a team, rather than by a single individual [ 33 ]. To maintain open communication and better coordination, as well as avoiding possible conflicts, one must rely on the role of leaders to motivate the team to achieve the organization goal. It was found that encouragement and support by leaders, their trust and clear vision, their consistent behavior in this regard and their ability to convince subordinates to acknowledge their vision, can all influence employee job satisfaction. On the other hand, we found that the factors in achieving job satisfaction were not limited to the employee's working environment, but also included interactions between working partners.

Good health care requires good team behavior, so it is also recommended that hospital administrators not only establish relationships within the health care teams, but also work to improve these relationships to increase employee job satisfaction. Academics who study organizational culture as their research topic feel that organizational culture is complex.

Other academics have found that organizational culture is also related to organization or employee efficiency. Good examples are an organization's innovative ability [ 36 ], employee effectiveness e. Kane-Urrabazo [ 20 ] believed that a satisfactory work environment can be created by the employees when an organisation possesses a healthy culture and thus has a positive attitude towards employee work. Since a wide range of variables were included in our study, only a limited number of clinical nurses were interested in participating. Furthermore, only 2 hospitals were involved in this research; therefore, it is proposed that in view of the response rate, future research should consider adjusting the research variables.

Organizations face challenges in the external environment and changing internal context, and leaders will alter their behavior to adapt to these environment changes.

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Back to top. When the interaction between the leadership and employees is good, the latter will make a greater contribution to team communication and collaboration, and will also be encouraged to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organization, thereby enhancing job satisfaction. My book advances that understanding by explaining the reasons why behavior, attitudes, beliefs, and values differ across specific cultures. Culture is constantly in flux -- as conditions change, cultural groups adapt in dynamic and sometimes unpredictable ways. How Cultures Work Though largely below the surface, cultures are a shifting, dynamic set of starting points that orient us in particular ways and away from other directions. Workplace diversity provides strengths as well as offer challenges to the organisation. Adhocracy cultures are dynamic and entrepreneurial, with a focus on risk-taking, innovation, and doing things first ArtsFWD,

Therefore it is proposed that longitudinal research methods can be adopted in future investigations into how changes in organizational context impact on leadership behavior. Will these changes create a brand new organization culture? And how will these changes in leadership behavior influence employee behavior and their contribution to the organization? Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior in order to reach the organizational goal.

It is proposed that future research can explore the type of leadership behavior that will shape a particular culture within an organization. Thus, administrators can achieve the objective of shaping a new organization culture by adopting different leadership behavior training programs. Culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether or not the organization is a happy and healthy place to work [ 20 ]. Through communicating and promoting the organizational vision to subordinates, and in getting their acknowledgement of the vision, it is possible to influence their work behavior and attitudes.

When there is good interaction between the leader and subordinates, there will be contributions to team communication and collaboration, and encouragement of subordinates to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organization, which in turn enhances job satisfaction. In: A literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Watson Bill, Clarke Charlotte, Swallow Vera, Forster Stewart: Exploratory factor analysis of the research and development culture index among qualified nurses.

Journal of Clinical Nursing. Organization Science. Lund Daulatram B: Organizational culture and job satisfaction. Casida Jesus, Pinto-Zipp Genevieve: Leadership-organizational culture relationship in nursing units of acute care hospitals. Nursing Economic.

Organizational Dynamics.

What Is Organizational Culture?

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Cultural Differences in Negotiations and Conflicts

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Celebrate Diversity and Cultures

Health SA Gesondheid. Applied Nursing Research. Schneider WE: Productivity improvement through cultural focus. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research. Download references. Special thanks to all persons who assist in distributing questionnaires and those hospital employees who assist in filling out the questionnaires. Correspondence to Yafang Tsai. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

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Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background Organizational culture refers to the beliefs and values that have existed in an organization for a long time, and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken that focused on hospital nurses in Taiwan. Results Organizational cultures were significantly positively correlated with leadership behavior and job satisfaction, and leadership behavior was significantly positively correlated with job satisfaction.

Conclusions The culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether it is a happy and healthy environment in which to work. Open Peer Review reports. Relationship between organizational culture and leadership behavior Culture is socially learned and transmitted by members; it provides the rules for behavior within organizations [ 18 ]. Hypothesis 1- Organizational culture is positively correlated with leadership behavior. Relationship between leadership behavior and job satisfaction Job satisfaction has been associated with nurses who perceive their managers as supportive and caring.

Hypothesis 2 - Leadership behavior is positively correlated with job satisfaction. Relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction Organizational culture expresses shared assumptions, values and beliefs, and is the social glue holding an organization together [ 24 ]. Hypothesis 3 -. Organizational culture is positively correlated with job satisfaction. The measurement of organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction A structured questionnaire was compiled based on similar studies published in international journals [ 26 , 27 ].

Data Source and Analysis We employed self-administered questionnaires to collect research data. Table 1 Participant Demographics Full size table. Results Descriptive statistics The average score for organizational culture was between 3.

What’s the difference between multicultural, intercultural, and cross-cultural communication?

Figure 1. Full size image. Research limitations and future research Since a wide range of variables were included in our study, only a limited number of clinical nurses were interested in participating.